There is a certain similarity between the human brain and the computer: they are both occupied with data processing. This inevitably results in parallels.
One finds this, for instance, in the way our genetic material is passed on: by storing the information, the data, on ‘data carriers’: our genes.
The data on those genes are ‘written’ and ‘read’, exactly like it is done in computers, and if necessary a copy is made: the messenger-RNA.
In Homo Combinatus is explained why copies must be made.
Regularly we see the funny phenomenon of people, who for a long time accepted data processing on the basis of the genes – which happens fully parallel to the course of matters in a computer – as completely normal, while refusing to see the further resemblances.
But in the end they will get stuck and see themselves forced to face reality: the processes in man and computer are identical, which makes it possible to make them visible in humans by means of our knowledge of computers.
So it is not a question of putting man down as a computer, but of using our knowledge in the field of data processing, which we obtained thanks to the development of the computer, for making similar processes visible in humans.
The crux of the matter is that it is a question of data processing and that it doesn’t really matter whether it is done in a human or in a computer,
as the steered course will always be the most logical course for the data processing.
It is a good thing that this view is becoming more and more accepted and subsequently in Homo Combinatus we find this comparison between man and computer, too.
This does not imply, however, that the reader should have any knowledge of computers or even of programming, beforehand! Certainly not!!
The limited knowledge of a few basic principles that is needed for getting a good insight is integrated in the book, in such a way that it can be easily understood.
In books that leave the computer aside – and with it the complete data processing! – simply because the authors don’t have the necessary knowledge, of course,
often terms like ‘long term memory’ and ‘short term memory’ are used. Such slogans may look impressive, but they don’t explain anything.
In Homo Combinatus things are different, which makes it possible to briefly explain among other things why we dream and why our dreams often (seem to) have such a peculiar progress.
For even the most fantastic dream has a logical en in the technical respect very well explicable basis!
The author, Eit van der Heide (1945), has originally no medical background. This enables him to look with an open mind at the issues he investigated.
In later years he acquired a substantial medical knowledge and it is the combination of that knowledge and his knowledge in the domain of informatics
science that urged him to accomplish this exceptional work.
Below some recent discoveries, findings and speculations and their relation to
In June 2010 the Dutch Radboud University at Nijmegen published an article under the headline:
Breakthrough in schisis research
The article is about a research by Huiqing Zhou and Hans van Bokhoven of the Antropogenetica department.
Below we quote the first part of that article and a small part that is to be found in it a bit further on.
Blocked zip fastener causes schisis.
Researchers of UMC St Radboud have discovered how schisis comes about.
Normally during development of the embryo the left and right half of palate and lip are joined together, as if a zip fastener is being closed.
But when two important genes do not satisfactorily co-operate, the zip fastener is blocked by a thin layer of cells and a harelip arises.
The discovery, that is regarded as an important breakthrough in schisis research, has been published on line in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
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Demolition of cells layer
In the early development of the embryo - with mice as well as with humans - lip, jaw and palate of both body halves grow towards each other.
In order to achieve this, all kinds of molecular and cellular processes will have to be adjusted to each other. Many of those processes are under central direction of the genes IRF6 and p63.
Van Bokhoven: "An essential step is the 'demolition' of a tiny film of skin that has a thickness of merely one layer of cells.
If that film is not demolished in time, the halves won't join, the zip fastener cannot be closed, then. Resulting in a schisis"
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Why a connection is present that has to be 'zipped' and in principle is absolutely superfluous, remains completely in the dark.
That can only to be understood if one departs from the Homo Combinatus.
It is also clearly a matter of two separate body halves that each of them have their own skin. Of two separate embryo's, therefore.
If, at the position of the connection, the skin is not removed they cannot be coupled.
For the sake of completeness we draw your attention to the following.
It is put here that a couple of genes do not satisfactorily co-operate. This is a way of expressing things that has become common business, but yet it is not correct.
Genes do not co-operate and they do not function in any other way, either. They only serve as a data support.
Reading the stored data and subsequently processing those data is done by other components, of which may indeed be said that they do function.
In Homo Combinatus these things are explained in the chapter about the system that builds up the body and to that end reads the genes.
It is that system, which tunes the foresaid processes to each other on the basis of the information it takes from the genes.
In the February 2011 issue of Psychologie Magazine the article below was included under the heading:
What is the 'anarchic hand-syndrome'?
PEOPLE WITH AN ANARCHIC HAND have one hand that seems to have a will of its own.
The 'malicious' hand will, for instance, pinch some ones ice cream. Or it presses the button of the remote control, whereas the other hand just selected a channel.
The disorder likely results from damage of the supplementary motor cortex, an area in the brain that turns intentions into actions.
Because of that damage the conscious control is lost. If an external incentive arises - a tasty ice cream for instance - the 'malicious' hand will react involuntary in a reflex.
This reaction cannot be suppressed by our brain, then.
Life is full of surprises, as this demonstrates once more. A hand that can see, that even is able to recognise a tasty ice cream and to grasp it out of someone's hand with the speed of lightning,
while fully independently driving itself and its complete arm(!!), without the brain being able to stop it! For what reason would we still need a head?
But of course: for the eating of the ice cream!
Well, all joking apart, we may assume that the author of this article knows better and put his or her foot in it with this formulation. Such things happen to all of us, now and then.
Quite incidentally there is a passage in Homo Combinatus that is rather similar to the before article:
But what, for goodness' sake, does it matter if they are independent all the same and look upon everything in their own view?
One half sees a fly approaching and smacks out, the other one, who at the same moment wanted to transport a cup of tea to the mouth sees the liquid fling into the air.
And when they have a biscuit with their tea they both try to grasp it before the other one can reach it.
Well, that just isn't the way things work!
Alas, we have to restrict ourselves to the above, limited quotation. In this context you'd best see it as being mentioned just for the fun of it. The complete story is too long to print
here. As a matter of course it comes down to us having to do with two independent brains that are in each other's hair if problems with the mutual coupling arise.
These things have been figured out many years ago, in Homo Combinatus they were gratefully made use of.
The only difference with the people who figured them out is that they did not have any notion of the fact that it is not a matter of half brains
but of two independent brains that more or less look like two halves (in order to make the most economical use of the intracranial space the original spherical brains
have been flattened on the inside and placed closely together, separated by their meninges).
As soon as the coupling of the two brains does not, or not anymore, function correctly the dominance of the First Brain gets into a tight corner.
By dominance is meant that it is the only one of the two brains that is allowed to drive the body.
The Second Brain, too, comes to grips with the drive, then, and starts to play the above mentioned kind of jokes.
On June the fourteenth, 2011 on the website Faqt, in an article from the pen of Joost Tadema, the following could be read.
Brains chatter unconsciously
Unique, for visible for the first time: your brain that steadily keeps functioning after you became unconscious.
We already know what goes on in your brain during everyday life. But what happens inside your skull when you lose consciousness?
For the first time images are available of the brain activity at the moment a person becomes unconscious.
The images were presented at a European congress of anesthetists in Amsterdam. On the images various parts of the brain seem to 'talk' to each other.
The professors who initiated the animation stood open-mouthed, while looking at what they had discovered.
They think that, thanks to the scanning techniques, it will become easier to point out local brain damage in persons who are unconscious.
As usual, these scientists, too, like to keep on the safe side and they want to make more scans before they determine what is happening.
But the animation does proof that an earlier theory of professor Susan Greenfield of Oxford university is correct.
She claims that unconsciousness is a process in which various parts of the brain are suppressing each other.
Just let us see what Homo Combinatus has to tell us about this.
Do we live on in our children?
In the preceding sections the journey life covers on its way up is sketched in a somewhat summary way, somewhat in outline, too.
But things won’t run that automatically, of course. A next step can only be taken if the previous one is remembered, otherwise the previous one would have to be taken again first.
So at the very beginning already a memory needs to be present, a memory that is embedded within the living being in such a way that it may be passed on in case of reproduction,
either complete or in a compressed form, so that it may unroll itself according to the presented enablement within the development of the new individual.
Here we are dealing with standard computer-technology. What's more, what we obtain from our parents by means of heredity is fundamentally not much more
than the part of our memory we describe as ROM: Read Only Memory, for our computers.
Even if the rest of us is damaged in such a way that we are no more able to carry out any activity, this component, with its unshakably secured data,
will keep functioning. General anesthetization provides us with such a situation, which we can use to the fullest.
When we are unconscious or even in a coma everything simply keeps going on, without presenting problems during the redressing work that needs to be done.
Please pay special attention to the last sentence. Doing redressing work is, of course, only possible if tests can be performed,
which automatically implies mutual sending of signals. There simply is no other way!
With regard to the theory about 'parts of the brain suppressing each other' we read, among other things, the following in Homo Combinatus:
The General Managers, who have to keep the body in good shape, are always hurled reciprocally between the often opposite wishes of Egos and Database Managers,
but always the moment will irrevocably arrive when the Egos get stuck, which may or may not be through those other two couples, and are switched off.
This is a matter of ordinary operating technique. It is the operating system - called 'the General Managers' in Homo Combinatus, in other publications usually
'immune system' or 'autonomic nervous system' - that maintains the body and because of that pulls the strings that enable it to switch the other components on or off,
It sees to it, for instance - whether we like it or not! - that we fall asleep, that our body is sexually activated, that we have a mind for the matters that
our body needs at a given moment (therefore our taste is constantly changing and not reliable), that our blood pressure is maintained at the right level.
Please do keep in mind that the article concerns an animation. It is impossible to make out to what extent a connection with reality is present.
One more example?
We take a look at the website Faqt once more, an utterly convenient website if you want to snap up some items now and then.
The article was entered on it on May 31, 2011 by Philip Dröge.
Viewing words in the brain
Scientists can see in your brain what you want to say. A blessing for people who can't speak.
Just say the word 'soup'. Before the sounds have left your mouth, your brain has assembled the word.
'Soup' exists of three sounds, the s, the ou and the p, which have to be stringed. Each of those strings comes from another part of your brain, before they are assembled into a word.
That's how you speak. When you want to say 'soup' your brain makes the three sounds. You assemble them into a word, which comes out through the mouth.
This was accidently discovered by neurolinguists of the Center for Innovation in Neuroscience and Technology at the University of Washington (US).
By scanning people while they were talking, it became clear that every sound has its own little piece of brain.
The original reason for this research was an attempt to try to find the cause of their epilepsy, but as they were talking, it became clear how speech was formed.
The little parts of the brain where the sounds are formed are named the Wernicke Area and the Broca Area.
The forty sounds that were discovered come from the Broca Area, assembling is done in the Wernicke Area.
People who suffer from a hemorrhage in these parts of the brain, are often left unable to speak, or they talk gibberish.
This discovery makes it possible to develop - in due time - a machine that reads your thoughts and converts them into a voice.
That way people who don't have vocal cords left might be helped, for instance.
The research is published in the Journal of Neural Engineering.
Well, the first thing that strikes the eye is that it all happened accidently again.
Homo Combinatus contains a chapter that is entirely dedicated to speaking, writing and typing.
That chapter, explaining, for instance, how speaking errors and writing errors come about, cannot be completely reproduced here, of course.
But the mere sentence below will tell you enough:
The drive of speech is done per letter, where appropriate per sound or combination of such building stones. Frequently occurring combinations are stored in libraries,
others are examined when they occur.
So they have - accidently - made these routine libraries visible, which was bound to happen in the area where they might be expected.
Now that we are at speech anyway, we might link another item to it.
We refer to an article that could be read on April the twenty third, 2010 on the before named website Faqt, where it was entered under the heading:
The eyebrows of Sacha de Boer (Sacha de Boer is a well-known Dutch newsreader.)
The first part of that rather long article goes as follows:
Although they are not always aware of their doing so, newsreaders use their eyebrows and head to make sure that the properties of their news items are clear.
For instance, in order to emphasize important words or to indicate whether they are speaking about a light-hearted or serious item.
Research at Tilburg University shows how and when newsreaders use visual expressions.
The information can be used for making better avatars - by means of digital techniques animated faces via which humans can communicate with computers in a natural way.
Newsreaders like Sacha de Boer indicate that they try to come across in their coverage as neutral as possible, while keeping their face neutral when pronouncing the news.
The first sentence immediately makes clear that newsreaders do not use their head and eyebrows to make the properties of their news items clear!
They even try to prevent that, as becomes obvious from the last sentence!
So for these motions there has to be an independent reason, which is concealed from the control of the speaking person.
It might be compared with respiration: you may stop it for a while, if necessary, but after that it will take its own course again.
Homo Combinatus goes into these questions rather deeply. It is impossible to display them all at this site.
So we restrict ourselves to the short quotation below, which should be seen in its relation to the rest of the chapter for full comprehension.
Speech is a combination of electronic thinking and mechanical motion. When we want to say something we form the words in the main memory,
where appropriate the main memories first, transport them to the output buffers of speech and drive the speech organs from there by means of a firm energy pulse.
This driving by means of energy pulses is magnificently visible. If you switch the sound of your television set off you will not only observe that people seem to snap like fishes on dry land,
but that they also make all sorts of funny, jerky motions, motions that are really not needed for producing sound!
If you switch the sound on again you may plainly determine that each time a few words come out, the head jumps to the left or to the right, goes up and comes down again,
that an arm is raised a bit and sinks again and so on. In the mean time the tuning of the brain may be plainly observed from the face: important words,
consequently high tension, the eye brows fly up, the eyes open wide, the head tilts; unneeded items, consequently low tension, the eyes nearly close, the head stays down.
Concerning this tuning of the brains:
In Psyche en Brein 1102 we find an extensive article, under the heading:
Our thinking faculty can process abstract concepts only by putting them on a physical peg.
It's no use reproducing that article here, either completely or partly. We will restrict ourselves to the text below a picture of a lady with a hypodermic on her forehead.
When the muscles that are needed for frowning the eye brows are paralyzed by means of a botox injection, the networks in the brain, that are responsible for
the processing of negative emotions, will get out of adjustment, too.
As a result it will take more effort to understand sad and angry sentences.
So in Homo Combinatus the link between the muscles that frown the eye brows and the adjustment of the brains is explained
(that's why those muscles are so explicitly depicted on the cover).
Two more items will follow now and after that we quit. They are both based on articles from the website Faqt.
The first one was entered by Germen on July 29, 2010, under the heading:
Mind melt with humans
Do you occasionally have the strange experience that someone is crawling into your head? You might be right.
Time after time it is the expedient when things are at their blackest on the Enterprise: if the Universal Translator fails there is always officer Spock
or some other Vulcan who is able to have his mind melted with the mind of another intelligent life form.
The umpteenth scientific failure of Star Trek inventor Gene Roddenberry?
Not completely. Researchers discovered that the electric brain wave-patterns of two people who were talking about the same item, begin to resemble each other.
This only works when the listener really understands the speaker: reading aloud something in Russian was ineffectual. It seems, therefore, that there is no question of paranormal effects.
Is this the first hard evidence that two people can click?
Virtually everyone knows the beautiful song 'Strangers in the night' by Frank Sinatra and the equally beautiful song
'Ich hab' die Liebe gesehn (beim ersten Blick in deine Augen)' by Vicky Leandros.
A very well-known, fascinating item comes up in those songs: two people meet, they immediately know that they fit and they stay together forever:
the dream of nearly any person!
Those people click. Homo Combinatus extensively indulges in this phenomenon. In the above case the function of the rhythm will supposedly have its influence, too,
a phenomenon that comes up in it when speech is considered.
Some quotations from Homo Combinatus:
'We looked each other in the face and we clicked immediately! From that moment on we have always been together.'
How often don't we hear that. Just one single look into each other’s eyes was enough to know that they were well-matched.
But how is such a thing possible?
If penis and clitoris actually don't have anything to do with sex, then what for heaven’s sake have the eyes to do with it?
If there is one component of our body of which everybody else has to keep his hands off, it is the very eye!
Well, we mentioned it before: it is not directly so much a matter of the eyes themselves as it is a matter of the frequencies we find in them.
When someone dies the eyes will 'break'. All functions in the brain come to a standstill, everything quits that had pulses and frequencies transported through the nerve system.
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Energy transport is by far the easiest between objects that resonate at the same frequency.
The MRI-scanner for instance is based on that principle; it clicks with the selected slice.
If those objects are identically tuned guitars we can hear it: when a string on one of them is strummed the same string on all others will sing along.
If those objects are humans they can feel it, especially when they are very close together.
If two people, who resonate at the same frequencies, are in close touch their internal resonances will be amplified!
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When two people look each other straight into the eyes, at some moment a resonance will arise that is felt down to the bottom of your spine.
At such moments a common feeling arises, what one feels the other feels as well.
With most people it will last some time before they are both at the same wavelength - literally - but sometimes the frequencies are already identical
when they meet for the first time: they 'click' at once then, they feel that they are well-matched.
Here, too, we must take into consideration that these quotations should be seen as part of a much larger context,
for which one should have the complete text available.
The second one was entered by Otje van der Lelij on December the twentieth, 2010, under the heading:
Dementia: when a zebra loses its stripes
When you can't remember concepts and facts, you may be showing a sign of the early stage of Alzheimer’s, as a French study shows.
You know what a zebra is: an African mammal, having a black and white stripe pattern. You know that the first World War started off in 1914.
And if someone talks about Santa Claus no further explanation is needed. For all these concrete data in the world our brain has a separate filing cabinet:
the semantic memory, in other words the memory for meanings.
French neurologists and psychologists of the
academic hospitals of Caen and Rennes claim, that if this memory starts to crumble away it might be a possible indication for semantic dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. So far so good, nothing new, here.
But what these scientists have discovered now is which parts of the semantic memory are the first to decline when these deceases crop up.
They submitted sixteen patients suffering from Alzheimer disease and eight patients suffering from semantic dementia to certain tests. And with what results?
The first thing patients forget are the distinguishing properties of an object or animal. They forget, for instance, that a zebra has black and white stripes and a giraffe has a long neck
Source (will be published in) the January 2011 edition of Cortex
In this article we see a very reasonable explanation of the phenomenon dementia, which matches with what you will find in Homo Combinatus upon that item.
Below two quotations from Homo Combinatus.
Then, stealthy, inevitably, the deterioration of our brain comes. We have to let go of one umbrella structure after another,
until at last we finish up at the limited structures of youth: we have grown demented. Sometimes the mutation files are still functioning reasonably,
it makes one sit up and notice how demented persons are yet able to manipulate recent items.
If it comes to our not even being able to comprehend the very first limited structures any longer we have become senile.
In general reducing the tables and/or simplifying the structures will take place before structures are disposed of.
Town and village are reduced to a single denominator, the same table-head: residence. We follow only the 'main lines' now.
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And so we slowly drowse off, reality fades away, the past that can be recalled steadily and without problem, begins to take its place.
Now we come to live more and more in the world of the Second Ego, a world that may, especially with the male,
deviate quite strongly from the world of the First Ego; we are growing increasingly strange . . .
A part of this alienating process, which should not be underestimated, is the influence of the Database Management Systems,
that handle a logic that is totally different from the one the Egos utilize.
Now that testing by practical experience doesn't take place anymore and its correctional influence disappears, impossible data combinations will arise.
One may harness an animal to a carriage, but that has to be a draught animal and not a cat or a canary.
Now if the Database Management Systems, for the sake of convenience, denominate everything that can be driven to 'carriage' and over and above that
lump together all animals - which would make a register difference of hundreds, perhaps thousands of tables of group classifications, as there are singing birds,
draught animals, cars, trains - the phenomenon of those strange stories arises, of which you at first, being an outsider, can't make head nor tail:
I harnessed my canary to the train and sailed to Arizona.
We will conclude with the last sentences of the preface of Homo Combinatus:
One should finally realize that when main memories and routines exist, there must be someone who constructed them.
Independent routines can only exist as part of a well considered, so-called structured program.
They won't be found in a beginners program and they certainly won't arise 'of themselves'.
A highly intelligent programmer has to be at work here, who follows his profession in the approved manner!
Medical schooling will have to be adapted, consequently, will need a thorough alteration.
This website was originally meant for the sole purpose of promoting the book Homo Combinatus. It existed merely of the pages 1 and 2. The column Topical Matters on page 1 did not exist.
After some time the overview on page 3 was added, in order to make the position of the book clear in respect to the scientific world. Soon it became obvious that a line had to be drawn, the book generates,
because of its broad format, so many possibilities for comment, that one may safely note that otherwise there would be no end to it.
On the other hand had to be ascertained, however, that it would be a shame to relinquish, purely for the sake of lack of space, the possibility to show the broad and especially coherent overview
that can only be established by means of an interaction with interdisciplinary books like Homo Combinatus. Therefore the variable column 'Topical Matters' was added on page 1, in which,
in contrast to the static overview on page 3, items can come and go.
From that moment on the presentation of a broad, coherent overview of the things that come to us from the scientific world, still with Homo Combinatus as the pivot
on which everything hinges and the possibility to use it for qualifying a bit where needed, became the goal of this website.
The last to be added was the apnea article.